10 Important Difference Between CCD and CMOS (Tabular Form)

difference between ccd and CMOS
What is the difference between CCD and CMOS sensor?

The component that captures light and starts the process of converting the collected light into a digital image is an image sensor, which is located in a camera.

The two types of image sensors utilized in digital cameras are CCD chips and CMOS chips. They were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

As the cost of digital cameras has decreased, they have become immensely popular. The emergence of CMOS image sensors has been one of the factors driving down prices. Manufacturing CMOS sensors is substantially less expensive than manufacturing CCD sensors due to the price of a digital camera decreasing substantially.

Many words have been written and discussed on the differences between CCD (charged-couple device) and CMOS (metal oxide semiconductor) and their potential advantages and disadvantages. What really is the difference between CCD and CMOS?

What Is CCD?

CCD stands for “charged coupled device” . When light waves enter the camera, they focus on the sensor, which transforms light into an electrical charge and forms the image.

CCD is a silicon chip with an array of photosensitive spots, often known as pixels. The photosites are exposed when a picture is taken in order to collect photons and store them as an electrical signal. Every pixel’s charge is converted to voltage, buffered, and delivered off-chip as an analog signal through a small number of output nodes one by one.

The output homogeneity (a major component in image quality) is great, because all of the pixels can be committed to light capture.

The more expensive CCD sensor is employed in the most complex astrophotography tools as well as low-end point-and-shoot cameras, despite the fact that CMOS sensors dominate the big mid-range market.

What Is CMOS?

CMOS stands for “Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor” . When light waves enter the camera, they focus on the sensor, which transforms light into an electrical charge and forms the image.

In CMOS sensor each pixel has its own charge to voltage conversion as well as amplifiers, noise-correction and A/D converters. This generates digital as an output.

They are more energy efficient than CCDs and provide a faster readout due to the use of voltage sampling rather than charge buckets. Furthermore, each column of the CMOS sensor has its own ADC.

As a result of this design, it is feasible to read many pixels at the same time (in a parallel configuration). It is ideal for smartphones and small cameras.

Although Silicon is the most widely used semiconductor in CMOS sensor, we can use gallium arsenide, silicon germanium, indium gallium arsenide instead.

Difference Between CCD And CMOS: CCD VS CMOS

Charged Coupled DeviceStands ForComplementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
Pixel are recorded on the chip and delivered one by one for creating image.MeaningEach pixel get the individual treatment inside the chip itself.
High quality and low noise images.Image quality High noise in comparison to CCD.
100 times more than that of CMOS.Power Consumption100 times less than that of CCD.
ExpensiveCostInexpensive as it can be fabricated in any standard silicon production line.
Lower as transistor are next to every photodiode or pixel.Light sensitivityHigher as photodiode are no way near to transistor.
More matureMaturity Less mature
Low light situationBest AtHigher light situation.
Generates more heat.HeatGenerates less heat.
Global shutter( simultaneous exposure of all sensor pixels)ShutterRolling shutter(top to bottom exposure of all sensor )
HighImage ResolutionLow
YesVertical smearNo
Optical microscopeApplicationDigital cameras and smartphones


Overall, CMOS sensors are less expensive to produce than CCD sensors, and their performance is continually improving, although CCD sensors may still be necessary for some complicated applications.

When it comes to power consumption, a CMOS sensor camera is preferable, especially if you’ll be employing battery-powered cameras.

One thing is certain: CMOS technology has surpassed and outperformed CCD technology, at least in terms of stills and video imaging.

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